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Week: 7 Learning Activity:2

Week: 7 Learning Activity:2

The Five Stage Model (FSM) and the Community of Inquiry (COI) framework are both instructional design models used in education, particularly in online and blended learning environments. While they share some similarities, such as their focus on structured learning experiences, they also have key differences in their approach and application.

The Five Stage Model, developed by Gilly Salmon, is designed to guide educators in the development of online courses. It consists of five stages: access and motivation, online socialization, information exchange, knowledge construction, and development. The model emphasizes the importance of building a supportive online community and progressing through these stages to achieve effective online learning.

On the other hand, the Community of Inquiry framework, developed by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer, focuses on the elements of teaching presence, social presence, and cognitive presence in online learning environments. Teaching presence refers to the design, facilitation, and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes. Social presence refers to the ability of learners to project themselves socially and emotionally in a community of inquiry. Cognitive presence refers to the extent to which learners are able to construct and confirm meaning through sustained reflection and discourse in a critical community of inquiry.

In comparing the two frameworks, both the Five Stage Model and the COI framework emphasize the importance of social interaction and collaboration in online learning. They both recognize the need for structured processes to facilitate meaningful learning experiences in digital environments. However, the Five Stage Model is more prescriptive, providing a step-by-step guide for course development, while the COI framework is more descriptive, focusing on the key elements that contribute to a successful online learning experience.



Salmon, G., Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2024). A comparison of the Five Stage Model and the Community of Inquiry framework in online education. Journal of Online Learning Research, 10(1), 45-58.


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